Nullification – A Priceless Check on Federal Usurpation and Tyranny, By Zack Strong

March 10, 2016 Posted by: Kelly Gneiting

The Constitution is a sacred document. It is far more than the “supreme Law of the Land.” It is a charter of human Liberty. It is the preeminent governmental system ever produced – a structure that could be adopted by any and every people on the planet to their benefit and happiness. This system of rule of law, limited government, checks and balances, separation of powers, explicit prohibitions on federal power, and overt guarantee of God-given rights, is America’s greatest achievement. Yet, what our forefathers spilt their blood to establish and maintain, scheming politicians and would-be tyrants have waged war against for over a century.

Most Americans naively believe that their leaders are not conspirators in a plot to destroy the Constitution and enslave the nation. They want to believe that, at the very worst, these politicians are only misguided, or perhaps simply incompetent. The evidence, however, prohibits this view and points overwhelmingly to a deliberate effort to destroy Freedom, to overthrow the Constitution, and to subvert the United States. In his day, Thomas Jefferson used sound logic to expose the abuses of the British against the American colonies as more than misguided policy or incompetent bungling, but as a concerted effort to subjugate the colonies. His logic may be applied to our recent history and present situation. Jefferson thus reasoned in the Declaration of Independence:

“Prudence, indeed, will dictate that Governments long established should not be changed for light and transient causes; and accordingly all experience hath shewn that mankind are more disposed to suffer, while evils are sufferable than to right themselves by abolishing the forms to which they are accustomed. But when a long train of abuses and usurpations, pursuing invariably the same Object evinces a design to reduce them under absolute Despotism, it is their right, it is their duty, to throw off such Government, and to provide new Guards for their future security.”

In other words, when, over a course of years, repeated violations occur, each of which erodes Liberty in some fashion, it is evident that they are not accidental. They are being done on purpose and in accordance with a plan or agenda. If the above quotation was not convincing enough, here is another more pertinent and direct pearl of eternal truth from Jefferson’s pen:

“Single acts of tyranny may be ascribed to the accidental opinion of a day; but a series of oppressions begun at a distinguished period, and pursued, unalterably through every change of ministers, too plainly prove a deliberate and systematical plan of reducing us to slavery” (Thomas Jefferson, “A Summary View of the Rights of British America,” 1774 – read this document at the link below).

Can anyone argue with Jefferson’s logic? I submit that you cannot. If we scan American history, we find that for well over a century our supposed representatives – both Republicans and Democrats – have pursued the same agenda. We can call this agenda by many names, such as communism or globalism, but I will simply use the term tyranny.

The fruits of the tyranny pursued by Republicans and Democrats and their behind-the-scenes masters are easy to discern. Some of them are: massively expanding government; increasing debt; higher taxes; more restrictive regulations; a stifled economy; rising unemployment; an emboldened police state; an interventionist government; more war; less national sovereignty; intrusive spying on the public; more collectivization of the American People; a gross lack of cultivation of national resources in favor of purchasing foreign goods; unconstitutional centralization of education; the dumbing down of the public; the lowering of national morals; an assault on manhood, men, and fathers; the destruction of the family by the promotion of feminism and like philosophies; the promotion of infanticide, known as abortion; the promotion of depravity such a pornography and homosexuality; stirring up of non-existent racial tensions; the flooding of America by foreigners with alien values and slavish political proclivities; more brazen lies and deceit by our leaders on every topic; increased corruption at all levels; political assassinations; greater judicial betrayal; less emphasis on the Constitution and the Bill of Rights; and, finally, less personal Freedom.

Republican and Democratic politicians alike have violated the Constitution, broken their oaths, sold out the nation, and betrayed our trust. When one reviews our history, he is left with the conclusion that all of this tyranny must be the product of deliberate action. Indeed, it defies logic to think that our leaders – a group comprised of lawyers, professors, graduates of the most prestigious universities, CEOs of powerful companies, self-made professionals, members of the upper classes of society, and others of note – are simply incompetent and have been for over a century. Surely at some point these successful Ivy League students of the law, professors, and businessmen, if genuinely interested in the public good, would have noticed the errors of past administrations, congresses, and courts and initiated course-corrections. Yet, there have been no course-corrections. There have hardly been any admissions that our national policies have been wrong or destructive. Instead, each new administration increases the power and scope of the abuses and takes the agenda one step further.

I will say again that there is no possible way that what has happened to America has been the result of an accident. Accidents do not persist for a hundred years with such consistency and vigor. Incompetence does not continue for generations without abatement. Yet, we are faced by generational tyranny – tyranny that keeps on spreading systematically with each new set of representatives in Congress, each new appointee to the Supreme Court, and each new presidential administration, no matter the party in power. No thinking person can believe this is accidental or the product of bumbling incompetence. Indeed, FDR, who was himself guilty of furthering the tyranny in a massive way, famously said: “In politics nothing happens by accident. If it happens, you can bet it was planned that way.” Yes, this is a conspiracy – a Satanic plot whose agents are tasked with “reducing us to slavery.”
Nullification5The purpose of this article is not to discuss the Satan-inspired conspiracies which face us, but, rather, to highlight one political measure which could assist us in restoring many of our lost Liberties virtually overnight while simultaneously preventing most future abuses. I speak of nullification. In particular, nullification by states as an exercise of their rights guaranteed explicitly by the Ninth and Tenth Amendments. Most folks do not understand this principle. Our history books deliberately leave out any mention of nullification and your “representatives” are careful to keep you uniformed about this power you inherently hold over them. If you were informed well enough, and possessed the desire, you could force your representatives – most notably on the state level – to nullify federal tyranny.

The clearest delineation of the concept of nullification was, not surprisingly, written by the great Thomas Jefferson. Indeed, he coined the term “nullification” for the context in which we are using it. My heart swells with endless gratitude for the inspired ideas put forth with unmatched discernment and unrivaled eloquence by the Sage of Monticello! I can think of no other individual in history whose thinking has so dramatically influenced my own and whose views I agree with in almost perfect harmony as that Apostle of Liberty. I feel a palpable stirring in my spirit each time I read his words. I hope to someday become half the man he was. I thank Heaven for sending him to do the work he did so brilliantly. I am eternally indebted to Mr. Jefferson and one day I hope to thank him face to face.

In 1798, Jefferson secretly aided in the writing of the first drafts of the Kentucky Resolutions. Portions were changed for the public version of the Resolutions, including the deletion of the word “nullification.” However, in 1799, Jefferson’s original use of the term “nullification” entered the parlance via a revised version of the Resolutions. In brief, the Resolutions were drawn up to counter the Adams Administration’s violations of the Constitution in the form of the dastardly Alien and Sedition Acts. I say that Jefferson “secretly” helped to write the Resolutions because at the time he was President John Adams’ vice-president and could not be publicly seen as undermining the administration’s policies – for which “offense” one could be fined or hauled off to jail under the Alien and Sedition Acts.

Historian Thomas E. Woods, Jr., has written a superb book, which I recommend to you, entitled “Nullification: How to Resist Federal Tyranny in the 21st Century.” I will quote from it copiously below. Woods describes Vice-President Jefferson’s precarious position in 1798:

“In the face of unconstitutional federal laws, Jefferson – constitutionalist first; vice president second – believed a stronger response than mere petitions and protests was called for, but he also wanted the states to avoid the other extreme of secession. Although he believed in a state’s right to withdraw from the Union (this being merely a logical extension of the principle of self-government, which was central to Jefferson’s political philosophy), he thought that right should be exercised only as a last resort. What he sought was a mode of resistance that would allow a state to remain in the Union, but at the same time recognize its right to defend itself against federal usurpation. Nullification, in this view, was not an extreme remedy at all. It was the moderate middle ground. It was a central feature of Jeffersonian thought that ‘the true barriers of our liberty . . . are our State governments,’ and it was via nullification that Jefferson suggested those barriers be employed” (Woods, “Nullification,” 44-45).

We have identified the problem: federal usurpation. The question was then, as it is now, how to properly counter federal tyranny without exercising the last resort right of secession or rebellion. The various drafts of the Kentucky Resolutions give us the answer. Let us examine several points from these documents, which you can read at the link at the end of the article.

In the 1st point of the Resolutions, we read the following:

“That the several States composing the United States of America, are not united on principle of unlimited submission to their general government; but that, by a compact under the style and title of a Constitution for the United States, and of amendments thereto, they constituted a general government for special purposes – delegated to that government certain definite powers, reserving, each State to itself, the residuary mass of right to their own self-government; and that whensoever the general government assumes undelegated powers, its acts are unauthoritative, void, and of no force.”

In the above, Jefferson explained the nature of the Union; namely, that it was a creation of the states. The “several States” joined together to create a general, or federal, government “for special purposes” and “delegated to that government certain definite powers.” Read Article 1, Section 8 of the Constitution to learn what these few, limited, narrowly-defined powers are. Apart from these few limited and precisely-enumerated powers which the states delegated to the federal government, the states retained the larger share of the power (which was delegated to them by the people of the states). Whenever the federal government oversteps its narrowly-defined limits, its actions instantly become “void, and of no force.” In such a circumstance, the states are to exercise their greater power to interpose between the federal government and the People.

To further enforce its views, point #1 of the Resolutions explained that the states were “co-States” and that each was an independent, equal, and “integral part” of the compact which created the federal government. Thus, no state was superior nor could force any other. And in all cases not covered by the intentionally limited Constitution, “each party has an equal right to judge for itself, as well of infractions as of the mode and measure of redress.” In other words, if it is not covered by the Constitution, the states can do what they please – including reject every act they deem unconstitutional. This is only natural considering that all such overreaches are inherently “void, and of no force” because they usurp powers not expressly delegated.

The Ninth and Tenth Amendment makes this point abundantly clear. The former states:

“The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.”

And the Tenth Amendment declares:

“The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.”

These crystal clear amendments serve as catchalls. As an old professor of mine used to say, paraphrasing, “The Tenth Amendment basically says, ‘If we missed anything, this covers it.’” Indeed, the Founding Fathers were so adamant about keeping power with the states rather than putting it in the hands of the federal government that they crafted two separate amendments to hammer this point home. The creation is not superior to the creator. In the case of the Constitution, it was created by the states, or, if you prefer, by the people of the various states acting through their respective state governments. In either case, the states wielded the lion’s share of delegated powers in the Union (as a side note, always remember that the People, or, to be more exact, each individual, possess all political power and merely delegate it to local, state, and federal governments for specific purposes which are defined in written constitutions that they have consented to).

The 1799 version of the Kentucky Resolutions contains the clearest expression of the need for nullification. It reads:

“If those who administer the general government be permitted to transgress the limits fixed by that compact, by a total disregard to the special delegations of power therein contained, annihilation of the state governments, and the erection upon their ruins, of a general consolidated government, will be the inevitable consequence.”

It proclaims that in all such cases of federal usurpation and tyranny, “a nullification, by those sovereignties [i.e. the states], of all unauthorized acts done under colour of that instrument, is the rightful remedy.”

To summarize the above, the Constitution contains expressly enumerated powers and responsibilities beyond which it cannot go. When it does go beyond these limits, the states have a right to rush to the People’s defense by nullifying the unconstitutional acts. This resistance normally takes the form of not enforcing the laws. Simple. Succinct. Moral. Just. And absolutely necessary. It truly is the “rightful remedy” to federal overreach.

Can anything be more rational than the concept of state nullification? Simply put, nullification is the natural right of states to enforce the Constitution by rejecting all unconstitutional acts and usurpations of the federal government. It is no more, no less than the right of the states to ensure that the national representatives of the People honor their oaths by obeying the Constitution and staying within its narrowly-defined bounds and exercising only its specifically delegated powers. After all, federal representatives are elected for one purpose, and one purpose only – to uphold and defend the Constitution, and, by extension, safeguard our rights which it guarantees. As Jefferson wrote elsewhere in the 1798 Resolutions: “In questions of power, then, let no more be heard of confidence in man, but bind him down from mischief by the chains of the Constitution.”

Thomas Jefferson and his partners in Kentucky were not alone in their support of state nullification. James Madison, who stands alongside Jefferson as one of history’s most brilliant thinkers and ardent patriots, helped draft the 1798 Virginia Resolutions (read them below at the link). Though slightly less forceful in tone, the Virginia Resolutions contain the same substance as their Kentucky counterparts. The pertinent section of the Virginia Resolutions states:

“This Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the compact, to which the states are parties; as limited by the plain sense and intention of the instrument constituting the compact; as no further valid than they are authorized by the grants enumerated in that compact; and that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said compact, the states who are parties thereto, have the right, and are in duty bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the evil, and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them.”

I like the phrase “in duty bound.” The states are “in duty bound” to defend the People against the federal government by “interposing” between the two when the latter violates its purpose in protecting the rights of the former. According to the Virginia Assembly, the Constitution is “plain” and easily understandable. I can’t tell you how many university lectures I endured wherein professors said that the Constitution was “ambiguous” and hard to nail down to one position or another. This is ludicrous. Scheming individuals put forth this false notion in order to create loopholes which they could use to centralize government, attain greater power, and restrict the Liberty of the People. Those who have not taken the time to study the Constitution are blinded by these deceptions and will ever remain so unless they free themselves by learning the truth, which requires dedicated study.

In support of my analysis and of the Kentucky and Virginia Resolutions, I provide several additional quotations. All three come from the Federalist Papers (read them, as well as the Anti-Federalist Papers, at the links provided below).

In the Federalist No. 47., James Madison wrote:

“The accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary, in the same hands, whether of one, a few, or many, and whether hereditary, self-appointed, or elective, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny.”

We may logically assume that the People, through any means necessary, including through the interposition of the states, have a natural right to defend themselves against tyranny in any form. It follows, then, that nullification is not only a valid principle, but an incredibly wise and useful one. It is certainly a valid alternative to civil war. Nullification is a principle that we must begin to exercise immediately to thwart federal tyranny before it is everlastingly too late.

In the Federalist No. 28, Alexander Hamilton explained how the people could stop tyranny no matter where it raised its demonic head, and why it is so important to be informed and vigilant:

“The obstacles to usurpation and the facilities of resistance increase with the increased extent of the state, provided the citizens understand their rights and are disposed to defend them . . . [I]n a confederacy the people, without exaggeration, may be said to be entirely the masters of their own fate. Power being almost always the rival of power, the general government will at all times stand ready to check the usurpations of the state governments, and these will have the same disposition towards the general government. The people, by throwing themselves into either scale, will infallibly make it preponderate. If their rights are invaded by either, they can make use of the other as the instrument of redress. How wise will it be in them by cherishing the union to preserve to themselves an advantage which can never be too highly prized!

“It may safely be received as an axiom in our political system that the State governments will, in all possible contingencies, afford complete security against invasions of the public liberty by the national authority.”

This is fairly self-explanatory. Government is merely a tool of the People. In our system wherein we have layers of government – city, county, state, federal – we have many tools at our disposal to right wrongs, redress abuses, and thwart tyranny. Normally, it will be the federal government which perpetrates these abuses. In this case, the states must interpose and nullify its unconstitutional acts. If the states become tyrannical, the People can either use their national representatives or local governments to rein them in. Yes, this brilliant system “can never be too highly prized!”

Hamilton further expressed his view of constitutionality in the following excerpt taken from the Federalist No. 78:

“There is no position which depends on clearer principles than that every act of a delegated authority, contrary to the tenor of the commission under which it is exercised, is void. No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the Constitution, can be valid. To deny this would be to affirm that the deputy is greater than his principal; that the servant is above his master; that the representatives of the people are superior to the people themselves; that men acting by virtue of powers may do not only what their powers do not authorize, but what they forbid.”

Indeed, there are no “clearer principles” than those which demand that the People’s representatives obey the Constitution and act in accord with its simple decrees. Actions which exceed the enumerated powers of the Constitution are automatically void. Every act, “law,” or regulation which exceeds the delegated powers listed in the Constitution, whether it be President Obama’s “Affordable Health Care Act,” President George W. Bush’s “Patriot Act,” President Franklin Roosevelt’s “New Deal,” or President Adams’ “Alien and Sedition Acts,” is irrevocably void and of no force. We therefore have no moral, or legal, obligation to obey or enforce such “laws.” To do so would be to violate both the spirit and letter of the Constitution.

If what I have written about nullification is not sufficiently convincing, I want to provide you with commentary from Thomas Woods’ book “Nullification” cited earlier. Woods explained:

“Nullification begins with the axiomatic point that a federal law that violates the Constitution is no law at all. It is void and of no effect. Nullification simply pushes this uncontroversial point a step further: if a law is unconstitutional and therefore void and of no effect, it is up to the states, the parties to the federal compact, to declare it so and thus refuse to enforce it. It would be foolish and vain to wait for the federal government or a branch thereof to condemn its own law. Nullification provides a shield between the people of a state and an unconstitutional law from the federal government.

“The central point behind nullification is that the federal government cannot be permitted to hold a monopoly on constitutional interpretation. If the federal government has the exclusive right to judge the extent of its own powers, warned James Madison and Thomas Jefferson in 1798, it will continue to grow – regardless of elections, the separation of powers, and other much-touted limits on government power. A constitution is, after all, only a piece of paper. It cannot enforce itself. Checks and balances among the executive, legislative, and judicial branches can simply unite against the independence of the states and the reserved rights of the people” (Woods, “Nullification,” 3-4).

Our public servants have one job and one job only; namely, to support and defend the Constitution of the United States. Our representatives are not elected to cater to the whims of the American People, to jump at the command of the majority, or to change the system. The job of a public servant is to defend the Constitution and its eternal principles. Period. The Constitution’s primary job is to restrict the powers of government so as to ensure that the citizens of the United States are fully protected in the exercise of their sacred and unalienable rights, including the right to peaceably self-govern with no outside interference.

This point cannot be emphasized too emphatically or too often. So let me explain it again. The government’s job is not to promote social projects, to work for change, to follow the majority’s will in every matter, to provide for you, to give charity, to give foreign aid, to protect other nations from their enemies, or to be constantly passing new laws or initiating new programs. The government should be limited – very limited. The Constitution demands it. The government should be so small that we are hardly aware of its existence. If it functioned within its constitutional bounds, the average American would scarcely know anyone who held a federal post because they would be largely irrelevant and powerless. If our system operated as intended, of much greater concern and importance to you and me would be state and local representatives and their policies – which we would be directly involved in crafting and implementing.

If the federal behemoth we call a government continues to collectivize society and usurp power without being checked in a lawful manner, such as through state nullification, the American People who still care about Liberty will be forced to exercise their God-given right to abolish a government which has premeditatedly and repeatedly overstepped its just bounds and becomes destructive of Freedom. Every American who supports the Declaration of Independence believes in this right of rebellion to tyrants. Indeed, Benjamin Franklin’s proposed motto for the United States was “Rebellion to Tyrants is Obedience to God.”

The Declaration of Independence states: “[W]henever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends [i.e. protection of “Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness”], it is the Right of the People to alter or to abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles and organizing its powers in such form, as to the shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.”

I pray that America will never be forced to wade through the anguish, pain, and suffering of civil war or revolution, but I fear that this is exactly what will happen, barring a massive awakening by the People. The real American Revolution took place in the hearts and minds of the American People prior to 1776. This needs to be our focus – education. A personal motto I adopted long ago states: “Education is the key.” Not education in public schools and universities – for this is not education, but indoctrination and conditioning – but real education in correct principles, authentic history, good morals, and true religion. To this end of educating as many as will listen, I again quote from Thomas Woods:

“We have been taught to believe in the modern state; in political centralization. Nearly all modern political philosophers defend some form of it. Instead, we should give the moral benefit of the doubt to movements for political decentralization in the United States and around the world, which challenge the absorption of all power by an irresistible central authority. There has been no more destructive force in the history of the world than the modern state. There is nothing sinister about thinking in different ways. To the contrary, it is probably the most intellectually and politically liberating thing we can do. . . .

“Now the question remains: can the honorable if moribund tradition of state resistance to unconstitutional federal power be resuscitated, or are Americans too deeply in thrall to the myth that unlimited submission to federal authority is the only course available to them, and is what makes them good and loyal Americans? . . . .

“Now it will be objected that nullification can’t work because the federal government has the states right where it wants them: if push comes to shove, no one will want to antagonize the politicians in Washington for fear of losing ‘federal funding.’ That is a serious obstacle, to be sure. Of course, the problem would be mitigated to some extent if the states were to nullify unfunded federal mandates, thereby saving money. The more states engage in nullification, moreover, the more difficult it will be for politicians in Washington to get away with penalizing them all.

“This is the essential point: if the people of the states are determined not to obey a law they consider unconstitutional, that law simply will not be enforced. The federal government can rant and rave all it likes. It won’t matter. . . .

“Another way nullification might be pursued is by means of jury nullification, which holds that juries must judge not the facts of a case but also the law itself. Although few people realize it, the consensus among the Founding Fathers was that jury nullification was an essential defense mechanism by which the people’s determination not to enforce an unconstitutional law may be effected. Theophilus Parsons, who supported the Constitution in Massachusetts’ ratification convention in 1788, . . . took precisely this position. He wrote: ‘An Act of usurpation is not obligatory – it is not law. Any man may be justified in his resistance to it. Let him be considered as a criminal by the General Government – yet his own fellow citizens alone can convict him. They are his jury – and if they pronounce him innocent, not all the powers of congress can hurt him – and innocent they certainly will pronounce him, if the supposed law which he resisted was an act of usurpation’. . . .

“Nullification is a principle that defends the freedom of all Americans, who are equally threatened by a government that acts without limits. . . .

“Nullification is not a silver bullet, of course. It cannot solve all problems, and carrying it through effectively will be difficult . . . Any attempt to reverse the process is going to be an uphill battle. If we are waiting for a remedy that will work like magic, we will be waiting for a long time. . . .

“A radical step? No doubt. But since nothing else has worked, and pursuing the same failed strategy again and again holds little promise, what alternative exists? Plenty of people make nice salaries writing think-tank reports, some of them quite good, about the benefits of freedom in this or that area. Isn’t it time to supplement all the report-writing with vigorous, constitutional action in the tradition of Jefferson? It can scarcely be doubted where the Sage of Monticello’s sympathies would lie if he had the misfortune of seeing what had become of his country. . . .

“Nullification is about learning to exercise our rights, whether the courts of the politicians want us to or not. Instead of waiting for our liberties to be handed back to us, we in our states can follow Jefferson’s noble example and take the lead in saying no to the ambitions of a government that would have horrified the founding generation. For, as Lord Byron said, ‘Who would be free, themselves must strike the blow’” (Woods, “Nullification,” 119-121,125,129-130,132,138,140,143).

In the spirit of Lord Byron, Brigham Young, an early LDS Church leader and staunch defender of the Constitution, said the following in an 1854 Independence Day address in Salt Lake City about solving the political chaos in his own day. It applies to our present situation:

“What shall be done? Let the people, the whole American people, rise up and say they will have these abuses regulated, and no longer suffer political demagogues to gamble away their money, but turn them out of office to attend to their own business. Let the people make a whip, if not of good tough raw hide, of small cords at least, and walk into the temple of the nation, and cleanse it thoroughly out, and put in men who will legislate for their good, instead of gambling away their money and trifling with the sacred interests of the nation which have been entrusted to their keeping.”

I endorse that statement most emphatically! The American People must “cleanse” the nation and purge out the traitors. We must hunt down and destroy the wolves in sheep’s clothing who lie to our faces and stab us in the back with the dagger of despotism. An effective first step in cleansing our nation of turncoats is to nullify the unconstitutional, unjust, and arbitrary “laws” and edicts which these tyrants send forth to enslave us. We must begin to use the glorious principle of nullification to invalidate and reject ALL laws, federal or state, which violate the Constitution of the United States. We must reject the Satan-inspired notion of blind submission to government and discourage all from heeding and enforcing such “laws,” which, in reality, are null and void by nature of their unconstitutionality. We need not wait for the courts to decide whether a law is unconstitutional in order to reject it. To do so will leave us lingering in limbo while more chains are fastened on our wrists. Slavery is not an option freemen entertain. “Liberty or death” is the immortal battle cry of the free – and of the true American.

The Constitution is our standard. We must cling to it, support it, stand by it, restore its former prominence, hold our representatives strictly accountable to fulfilling their oaths to defend it, and never, under any circumstances, compromise on its transcendent principles in favor of any other political philosophy. And certainly never in favor of servitude to centralized authority.

The Constitution, despite the wounds inflicted in it by “political demagogues” over the years, remains mankind’s wisest political document and the greatest guarantor of Freedom the world has ever known. Its principles are pure and sublime. It is a beacon to the world. I believe with all my heart that God Almighty inspired the Founding Fathers to establish the Constitution for the Freedom of mankind. America was meant to be a light to the world – a shining city on a hill. We have a majestic destiny! The world depends on us, whether they realize it or not. Only in the blessed soils of America does Freedom have a chance to blossom like a rose.

Tragically, the individuals who have been elected to defend the Constitution have betrayed the American People, violated their oaths, and pursued a political philosophy directly contrary to its principles, intentions, and plain prohibitions. These wolves in sheep’s clothing infest our government. They are elitists who believe they are superior to “the masses,” as we are disdainfully called, implying that we are animals to be herded together and led by the nose. In their eyes, we represent a rabble of ignorant peasants over which they must lord. They have thus conspired to control every aspect of our lives – which they believe they know how to run better than we do – via “laws,” statutes, regulations, executive orders, international alliances and treaties, and sometimes outright force. In order to achieve this burgeoning totalitarian control, they have violated the very clear checks on power written into the Constitution. In so doing, they have committed treason and have outed themselves as enemies of the People and of the holy principles of Freedom.

I hope and pray that people will begin to “arrest the progress of evil” in this country by applying the “rightful remedy” of nullification – on a local level through juries, and on a state level through state governments. The esteemed Ezra Taft Benson once said that “America will not be saved in Washington” (). I concur. Because Washington has usurped so much power and is pursing such a reckless course that will lead inevitably to our total enslavement as a People if not stopped immediately, we must pay close attention to what happens there.

At the end of the day, however, all political power resides with you – the individual. From the individual, power spreads to the family. From the family, it extends to wards, or townships. From a ward, it is distributed to the community. From the community, it extends to the county. From a county, it is delegated to a state. And from the combination of states, limited power for specific purposes is delegated to the federal government. These allocations of power are codified in written constitutions and charters, by which all public representatives are bound by oath and must obey. To extend one’s power beyond that which is specified at any given level is usurpation and tyranny.

If we were to represent these delegations of power by a pyramid graph, the base of all power would be the individual. The largest share of power is at the bottom and is the source of all power exercised by any other group in the hierarchy. From the individual it flows upwards to wards, counties, etc. At the pinnacle of the pyramid, where the smallest portion of power resides, sits the federal government. The federal government is dependent upon all other groups in the hierarchy and can do absolutely nothing of itself except what it is allowed to do by written permission. To learn just what the federal government is allowed to do – by your authorization, mind you – read the Constitution.

When you read the Constitution, you will realize that the majority of powers exercised by the federal government today were never delegated to it, but were instead deliberately usurped in an unlawful manner over the course of many years. Once you realize this truth, it will be up to you, as a sovereign citizen holding all political power, to decide what you want to do about it. I, for one, support the course of nullification as a peaceful alternative to our right of rebellion to tyrants. One way or another, peacefully or through revolution, by the chastising hand of Almighty God or by the voluntary awakening of the People, Freedom will prevail in America once more. Of that I have no doubt and will stake my life upon.

Read the Kentucky Resolutions here:  1798 version: http://www.constitution.org/cons/kent1798.htm 1799 version: http://www.constitution.org/cons/kent1799.htm

Read the Virginia Resolutions here: http://www.constitution.org/cons/virg1798.htm

Read Jefferson’s “A Summary View of the Rights of British America” here: http://www.constitution.org/tj/tj-sumright.htm

Read the Declaration of Independence here: http://www.constitution.org/usdeclar.htm

Read the Constitution of the United States here: http://www.constitution.org/constit_.htm

Read the Federalist Papers here: http://www.constitution.org/fed/federa00.htm

Read the Anti-Federalist Papers here: http://www.constitution.org/afp/brutus00.htm



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  • Outstanding article Zack!

  • Dean Johnson

    Wow, I concur! Thank you for the wake up and insight, er….. education lesson! needed!